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State legislatures are responsible for the formation of constituencies for elections in themselves and the election of delegates from the states in the U. Single-member districts in which one member is selected are the most common in the U. In contrast to the system of proportional representation and the availability of certain districts, which can be considered as multi-member, the system of elections in single-member districts prevents the growth of third parties and can also significantly diminish the influence of numerous political minorities.
It causes the establishment of a redistricting. Particularly important are the elections held in the year census, which is held within a ten-year interval. The party that controls the state legislature at the beginning of a new decade sets the boundaries of constituencies for elections to posts in the state legislatures, as well as members of the Congress who remain unchanged until a new census in the next decade. With the relocation of rural people in the city and its residents to the suburbs, districting was no longer reflecting the true situation.
Some sparsely populated areas had greater representation than densely populated urban areas. Also, the officials, who served in the legislature, for obvious reasons, have been unwilling to take chances in the elections in the densely populated districts, which could deprive the government their own, as well as groups of individuals whose interests they represented.
Constitution declares nothing about the principle of equal elections. In the realization of this principle were involved states, which often created unequal in size constituencies. The winners of the elections in the United States are determined by the system of relative majority. In this system, candidate should get at least one vote more than any other candidate in order to gain parliamentary mandate, regardless of the total number of voters.
Consequently, many officials are elected by a small majority. One can also identify a number of serious shortcomings of the system of relative majority: Voting System distorts the results of the election significantly because of the neglect of the will of the electorate votes for the party that lost. System is unfair in relation to powerless political parties. Such a formula leads to the dominance of two sometimes three parties, which subsequently monopolize the whole power.
Accordingly, the chances of small and ethnic groups for their representation are remarkably small. Majority of the system tends to exaggerate the results of leaders. The Democratic Party protects the social programs in the country and provides more assistance to developing countries. These actions require significant financial resources; accordingly many American taxpayers complain about such policies.
Republicans are against excessive spending on social programs education, health care, and unemployment benefits. They vote for a reduction of taxes on businesses, against extensive financial aid to foreign countries. There is no practice of direct voting in the U. The President is determined by the Electoral College.
According to experts, in this system, there are two areas of concern. In this scheme, the position of the American electorate is ignored. The possible solution is to abolish the Electoral College.
However, the adoption of such a decision is very unlikely. The appropriate changes to the Constitution must be ratified by state legislatures, which are unlikely to part their electoral potential. The other problem of the U.
Also, candidates do not an equal access to debates; usually only two candidates - the candidate of the Republicans and the Democrats can take part in debates. The main problems occurring in the election are:. These facts were the reason to draw conclusions about the serious problems of the U. One should draw the conclusion from the American democratic experience, highlighting all the main features, which are essential for maintaining the stability of the democratic process in any country of the world and especially in the U.
The workable solutions must be found. The first, citizens should be given ample opportunity to elect and be elected, accordingly to the principle of equality of votes, without exception. In particular, the restrictions of political rights that base on sex, political opinion, race or religion weaken the legitimacy of the government. By contrast, the provision of universal suffrage allows people to realize that each of them has the chance to influence the election.
The second, the priority should be to increase the proportion of voters participating in the elections. Low voter turnout is the case for concern, if not alarming. In this situation, the election can lead not only to the election of officials who are not supported by the majority of eligible voters, but also exaggerate the influence of well-organized groups that pursue their own interests. The third, the most crucial point to the democratic process is a high degree of freedom of expression of political views.
Restricting the allowable dissent not only inhibits the development of electoral politics, legitimizing the practice of suppressing opponents, but the restriction of free thought can make dissidents refuse lawful activities, choosing the path of violent forms of prootest. The fourth, elections and representation system must provide the possibility for the control of state power by the majority population, and at the same time measures to protect minorities from oppression and dictatorship of the majority must be provided.
However, giving the interests of the minority disproportionate weight in elections can shake a key component of the consent of the voters: Otherwise, the minority view will prevail over the opinion of the majority that will damage the process of making decisions to the extent that the state power will be totally incapable.
Fifth, since the effectiveness of the election depends entirely on the confidence of the majority of the population in a free and fair election, the procedures that allow responding quickly to allegations of violations of the electoral law must be provided. Without such remedies, electoral process would soon be regarded as a continuous fraud. Finally, in a society that characterized by an irreconcilable split among the majority of the population concerning the most urgent issues of society; free and fair elections can be problematic.
Sometimes the viability of the political system can be determined by the situation in which the districts that are not directly related to the election campaign, and the existence of proposals that will never be included in the ballot.
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