See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles. Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. This is a list of all works cited in your essay, and should be the final page. Skip to main content. Sign on Search Menu.
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The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.
Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.
Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers.
When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.
The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp. Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.
It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight. The three examples above cover the most common publication types. Referencing is essential for all higher-level academic work because it allows an interested reader to trace the origin of ideas and relevant external material. Incomplete information is an obstacle to this kind of research, so a thorough and meticulous approach is absolutely essential.
Determine a system and stick to it to ensure full clarity. Inconsistent use of referencing is a distraction to the reader and indicates carelessness of thought, lack of attention, and disregard for scholarly conventions. A tidy page implies a tidy mind, and this will always score more highly. Many books — especially the best ones — have enjoyed many reprints, so it is necessary to be sure that your references can be traced to the right pages in the right volumes.
It's usually sufficient to cite the date of the publication you are using, but often it can be informative to give the original publication date also, particularly if considering the history of emerging ideas. If so, you should bear in mind the tip above, namely that the original language version was probably published at least a year earlier. Also avoid the trap of taking the translator as the name of a co-author, as this will rather diminish your scholarly credentials!
Edited volumes make up a huge part of many areas of academic literature. In your list of references you should tackle the problem, thus:. Different referencing systems and different usage of material will require various levels of specificity, e.
Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the words, information and ideas of others.
Facebook Page APA Referencing Guide Example APA Style Essay Professional Referencing Services All of the professional writing services provided by UK Essays include full research and referencing in a style of your choosing.
No date was entered. APA requires n.p. be entered if the Year of publication is not known. If you wish to use [no date] then scroll down and click on Create Reference again to create a reference without a . Read this essay on Essay on Referencing. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at distrib-lqh332l5.tk".
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Citing movies in essays and papers is different depending on the formatting that your school uses. The four most common writing formats used in United States schools are MLA, AP, Chicago and APA styles. Many teachers and professors will discount points for using the wrong referencing system, so it is important to find.